In 1867, the Shogunate family and anti-Shogun daimyo united for a common cause to overthrow the pro-western government, and established the restoration of imperial rule with a new Shogun and the 5 Regent Houses of Koubuin, Ikaruga, Saionji, Kujo, and Takatsukasa. When the Japanese surrendered in 1945 at the end of World War II, they were allowed to keep their imperial government intact, although their power over the nation was lessened, compared to the Japanese government that was created to run the nation with a democracy system.
When the Cold War started shortly after the end of World War II, Japan was pulled in by the United States to act as their main Far East base, with the island nation undergoing controlled rearmament, supported by US funding, to keep the Soviets in check. However, the BETA invasion in 1973 threw a wrench into the plans of every nation, and even Japan, far removed from the center-point of the conflict at that time, felt the need to arm itself with anti-BETA tactics and weapon systems.
The nation remained relatively safe from the BETA from 1973 to 1998, largely because of the enormous distance between the BETA's landing at Kashgar and their subsequent battles with Chinese and Soviet forces. Nevertheless, Japan was often called upon to provide aid in the form of auxiliary forces and materials, and took on a larger role in the war when the nation successfully lobbied for the next Alternative plan to be hosted in their nation in 1994. When the USA completed their G-Bomb research and production, the Empire of Japan was one of the nations opposed to the new G-Bomb-centric strategy proposed by the USA; several measures taken by them to oppose the plan include providing technological aid to the European Union, in the form of 3rd generation TSF data.Japan's first large-scale involvement in the war started in 1998 when the BETA completed their sweep of the Korean Peninsula and began moving for the Japanese islands. This would be the first of many battles in which the Japanese would be tested, both in combat capabilities and national abilities. Despite their zeal, the armed forces of the Empire of Japan were no match against the relentless BETA, and by 1998 half the country had fallen. As a result, the Imperial Army underwent a force restructure, becoming the combined Imperial Japanese Army/Mainland Defence Force, or IJA/MDF.
In 1999, the establishment of the Yokohama Hive on the mainland prompted the Empire to plan a preemptive strike against the BETA to prevent the enemy from gaining a real and solid foothold in the Far East Defense Line. Operation Lucifer proved successful despite numerous setbacks, and the capture of an intact Hive allowed the Japanese to retain their position on the Far East Defense Line.In light of the weakened Japanese military after Operation Lucifer, the government of Japan allowed United Nations forces to set up a base of operations in the former Yokohama Base, as well as for US forces to return to the nation as foreign garrisons. However, numerous IJA/MDF elements were dissatisfied with letting a second armed foreign entity in the form of the UN establish a base in Japan, and were not at all pleased to see the US Army return.
Throughout the years up to 2001, the Empire continued to weather attacks from the Sadogashima Hive with varying degrees of success, while pressure from the international community to deliver on Alternative IV continued to mount. Despite the Empire of Japan's proximity to a BETA Hive, political strife and internal dissent remains rife within the nation.
Even as the BETA continued to mount attacks against the Imperial Japanese forces from the Sadogashima Hive, the nation was hit by a sudden insurgency in the form of the 12/5 Incident. While the IJA/MDF suffered casualties from the attack, they, and the Imperial Navy, managed to mount an all-out offensive alongside UN and US forces on the Sadogashima Hive on the 25th of September, 2001, in Operation 21st.
Despite the victory gained at Sadogashima, the hard-fought battle had taken a toll on the Empire's armed forces, and recovery of their fighting strength was still incomplete when the BETA launched a counterattack on Yokohama Base. Initially focused on defending Kyoto from BETA stragglers, the IJA/MDF later responded to UN requests to provide reinforcements, and proceeded to launch an assault on the BETA rearguard retreating from Yokohama. The IJA/MDF continued to pursue fleeing stragglers to the west coast of Japan, where the Imperial Navy took over the chase. This final battle exhausted most of their combat strength for the time being.
Following the success of Operation Ouka, the United Nations realized the close-quarter capabilities and Hive infiltration potential of the Type-00 Takemikazuchi. Seeking a method to control the inevitable race for G-Elements, the UN requested for a squadron of Type-00s to be evaluated for export, so as to allow Hive recapture operations to be conducted under the auspices of the UN. The First Independent Northern Squadron was thus sent to Siberia in early 2002, making it the first time an Imperial Royal Guard unit had been seen in overseas operations.
Following 2003, the Empire of Japan, together with UN, US, and other allied forces, launched Operation Sledgehammer on the Cheorwon Hive in Korea, and successfully took the Hive without use of strategic weapons.
Unlimited/The Day AfterEdit
The rising sea levels in the aftermaths of Operation Babylon forced the nation to evacuate its people with US aid and relocate them to Seattle in the United States; the IJA/MDF has also been involved in joint military operations with US forces on the European continent due to their long-standing alliance with each other. Currently, the population of the Empire is spread over Seattle and the Hawaii.
As a result of their relocation, the Empire is now a close ally of the US, and their forces an important point in maintaining the defence line against the French-Canadian alliance over the US' northern border.
The current administration of Japan is more focused on an elected board of politicians known as the Imperial Diet, with governing power mostly residing with the Prime Minister of Japan, the third highest administrative authority in the nation. They are responsible for most of the administrative policies of the Empire, such as the decision to deploy troops overseas, the lowering of the draft age, and the relocation of refugees and resources following Operation Lucifer.
The Imperial Diet suffered a major blow during the 12/5 Incident, where most of them were killed in the initial stages of the uprising by IJA/MDF Captain Sagiri Naoya and his forces. The Shogunate established a provisional government to restore order after the incident.
Ministry of DefenceEdit
- A branch of the government, the Ministry of Defence oversees all projects to safeguard the Empire of Japan, including operations of the IJMDF. Under them are also various projects and plans to strengthen the fighting capabilities of the Empire of Japan as a whole; The Weapons Technology Development Authority, responsible for the development of the EML-99X and the XFJ Plan, is one such branch of the Ministry.
Due to their conditional surrender in WWII, the Empire of Japan was allowed to keep its imperial court intact. The Shogunate supports and places the Emperor of Japan as its highest authority, and has its own armed force, the Imperial Japanese Royal Guard, to ensure the security of the Shogunate and the Emperor. The current Shogunate draws its candidates for the position of Shogun from the Five Regent Houses of Koubuin (煌武院), Ikaruga (斑鳩), Saionji (斉御司), Kujou (九條), and Takatsukasa (崇宰), noble families who were descended from the ruling Shogun's clan prior to the 1900s. So far, two Shoguns have been known by name; Saionji Tsunemori (斉御司 経盛) served during the 1998 BETA Invasion of Japan, while the most recent Shogun is Koubuin Yuuhi.
The Regent Houses are thus amongst the highest-ranking nobles of Imperial Japan, superseded only by the Emperor of Japan. Their rank color is blue, with the appointed Shogun donning purple. Each of the Regent Houses also have their own independent security units, which can usually be identified by the red garb they wear.
Under the Regent Houses are the fudai, hereditary vassals with many generations of direct service to the Shogun, and by extension, the Regent Houses, under their name. Many of them serve in important positions; Takamura Masatada, for example, and the Takamura family in general, were prominent fudai responsible for several weapon development projects. The fudai wear yellow as their rank color.
One rank under the fudai are the samurai families, who wear white as their rank color. Most serve under the fudai as their direct subordinates.
The last rank of those serving in the Royal Guard and Shogunate are those not related to the samurai families, and thus do not have any actual status or nobility within the Shogunate. They wear grey as their rank color.
The armed forces of the Empire of Japan are some of the more war-experienced militaries that have fought against the BETA. Since the 1990s, Japan's military forces have been involved in various operations both abroad and local; examples include Operation 6/9 and the evacuation of Gwanju for the former, and the 1998 Invasion of Japan, Operation Lucifer and the following recapture of Honshu, and the Invasion of Niigata for the latter. Because of their combat experience, the Empire of Japan's military is regarded as roughly equal to the Soviets' and the United Kingdom's.
Currently, the armed forces are split into several distinct branches; the Imperial Japanese Army/Mainland Defence Force, the Imperial Japanese Aerospace Force, the Imperial Japanese Navy, and the Imperial Royal Guard. In particular, the Mainland Defence Force and Imperial Guard's roles in the defence of Japan have influenced the strategic goals of the nation as a whole.
The Empire of Japan's role in the Far East Defence Line is similar to that of the United Kingdom's strategic location and purpose on the European front, and as such both nations maintain a close relationship in terms of military cooperation and tactics sharing. Up until 2001, the Empire had been building up their armed forces for an assault on the Sadogashima Hive.
Imperial Japanese Army/Mainland Defence ForceEditCollectively representing all land-based combat forces of the Empire, the IJA/MDF's main mission is to safeguard the Empire of Japan against the BETA in all land-based operations.
The Imperial Army was the primary branch of the Empire's land forces, and the primary representative of Japan when it came to joint operations with the troops of other nations. At that time, the Army was split into the Mainland Force, for home defence, and the Continental Expeditionary Forces, which carried out overseas operations. Examples include Operation 6/9, as well as thinning operations on the continent of Eurasia. Their force structure includes direct assault forces such as TSFs and battle tanks, combat support forces, and air support forces such as combat helicopters and transport aircraft.
Following the 1998 BETA Invasion of Japan, the Imperial Armed Forces began to move towards the Mainland Defence Force concept to deal with the restructuring of the Far East Defence Line. This new organization is closer to that of a combined task force, with forces drawn from all branches of the military to contribute to the defence of the nation. As such, it falls under the scope of responsibilities of the Imperial Armed Force's General Staff, with secondary joint command shared by each branch of the Imperial Japanese military. Unlike the old Army structure which split the force into the Mainland and Continental Expeditionary Forces, the IJ/MDF have their forces split into the North, North-East, East, Central, and West regions.
However, while the Imperial Army and the Mainland Defence Force exist side-by-side, they are not the same organization, or even under the same command; it would be better described as both organizations just happening to share the same type of units most of the time, as the MDF's purpose was to improve reaction times against a BETA assault from the Asian and Eurasian continents, by forming a force structure that could accommodate speedy integration of various units from all three branches of the Japanese military. Navy and Aerospace Force units are frequently directly incorporated into MDF command structure when required, as opposed to the separate branches of land, sea, and air as seen in the Imperial Armed Forces at large, prior to the formation of the MDF.
- Japanese Continental Expeditionary Force
- An Imperial Army unit intended for overseas operation for a specific purpose or mission. One such unit was sent to Dalian, China, in 1993, as part of rear-line military aid during Operation 9/6 to hold the Far East Defence Line against the BETA advance. Jinguuji Marimo commanded Blade Squadron as part of a larger battalion, which itself was part of the Expeditionary Force.
- The Expeditionary Force suffered tremendous casualties due to the ferocity and speed of the BETA advance, and lost two battalions before they were able to retreat to Harbin.
- 404th Tactical Armored Battalion
- 133rd Regiment (2001)
- An Imperial Army unit that participated in Operation 21st as part of Whiskey Unit. Cracker Platoon, Isumi Akira's previous unit, was a part of the 133rd Regiment.
- 31st Tactical Armored Unit (2003)
- 1st Capital Defence Division
- Many of the Mainland Defence Force's units are arranged in division level, with the 1st Capital Defence Division tasked with the protection of Kyoto. As such, being assigned to such a unit is usually considered a prestige.
Fuji 1st BaseEdit
- An aggressor training unit, the Fuji TFTG is staffed with elite pilots of the IJA/MDF.
- Steel Lance Armor Regiment
- 5th Division
- 12th Division
- Contains 3 TSF regiments, as well as various armor and vehicle forces.
Imperial Japanese Aerospace ForceEdit
Following the introduction of the Laser- and Heavy Laser-class, the Imperial Air Force was merged with the Empire's space forces to form the Imperial Aerospace Force. The IAF possesses several HSSTs which were provided by the United States Space Corps, as well as most of the former Imperial Air Force's aerial assets. In addition, the IAF retains its own Orbital Diver force, and plays a larger support role by operating several sweeper and construction ships for clearing space debris, as well as the construction and maintenance of orbital station assets.
- IJASF 671st Airlift Group
- Assigned to the Mainland Defence Force. They participated in the 12/5 Incident, using their An-225s to airdrop Type-94s of the 1st Tactical Armor Regiment, forming an encirclement around the 66th Tactical Armored Battalion Hunter and the 207th Tactical Armored Platoon to prevent their escape.
As its name suggests, the Imperial Navy has full command of the naval forces of the Empire, and given its size and assets, the organization is regarded as the third strongest navy in the world. They often work closely with the IJA/MDF to head off BETA assaults on the Japanese mainland, and possess the most firepower in the entire nation; their modernized battleships are regarded as the world's strongest ships of that class. 
Currently, the bulk of the fleet is concentrated in the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan, to defend Japan from incursions from the Chongqing Hive (H-16), Cheorwon Hive (H-20), and the Sadogashima Hive (H-21). When not in combat operations, their primary role is maritime transport and logistics for TSFs and TSAs.
Incorporated into the Navy are the Imperial Marines, who operate the TSAs and TSFs permanently attached to the naval fleets. They are often the first units to land in amphibious assault operations and have the crucial objective of establishing a beachhead and securing a landing area for the Imperial Army. Because of this very dangerous assignment, the Marines are often considered to be among the elite of eishi.
IJM 19th Squadron
- Salamanders Squadron
- A squadron of TSFs in the Imperial Marines. They made use of both F-15Js and A-6J Intruders to establish a beachhead in the assault on the JFK hive in the TDA universe.
IJN Grand Fleet 1st FleetEdit
- The Owari is the flagship of the Imperial Navy's 2nd Fleet.
- The Izumo is the flagship of the Imperial Navy's 6th Fleet.
Supported Echo Unit forces during Operation 21st.
Pursued the remnants of the BETA force from the Defence of Yokohama Base. The naval squadron lost them when the BETA retreated within laser range of the Cheorwon Hive.
2nd TSF Transport Squadron
Submarine Unit Squadron
- Commanded by Captain Oota Chihaya during Operation Sledgehammer, callsign Orcinus-1.
TSF Transport Squadron
Sea of Japan Squadron
IJN 4th Tactical Armored Unit
IJN 17th Tactical Armored Unit
- Stingray Squadron
- Led by Captain Yazawa Seiji during Operation Sledgehammer, callsign Stingray-1.
- Salamander Unit
- Present during Operation 21st.
Imperial Japanese Royal GuardEdit
A military arm of the Empire staffed mostly by aristocrats and Japanese of royal lineage, the Royal Guards serve as the guards of the Shogunate. The smallest of all the military branches in the armed forces of Imperial Japan, the Royal Guard's main force are equivalent to two divisions of personnel, which are further split into four regiments's worth of people; three of the regiments are the 1st, 2nd, and the 24th Guard Regiments, with the various independent security units of the Regent Houses making up the numbers for the last regiment of personnel. Deployed equipment is all procured independent of the Empire of Japan's other armed forces, as according to the traditions of the Royal Guard; in recent times, their equipment is also scaled according to the rank of its assigned user.
Answering directly to the ruling nobility rather than Ministry of Defence, they are a separate arm of the military dedicated to the security of the Shogun, the Regent Houses, and the legitimacy of the shogunate alongside the Japanese government. Despite their traditionalist tendencies, the Royal Guard does promote inter-branch cooperation within the military, and frequently engages in personnel exchanges with the Imperial Army/Mainland Defence Force if the need arises.
As the primary security of the Shogunate, any threat to them, their seat of power in Kyoto or the assets they have around Japan will result in the mobilization of the Royal Guards against said threats, whether they are BETA or human. While the Royal Guards do not organize and carry out assaults against the BETA on the scale of the IJA/MDF, they will participate in such battles if they feel the need to or are requested to.
- 1st Guard Regiment
- 2nd Guard Regiment
- 3rd Guard Battalion
- A unit under the command of Takatsukasa Kyoko of the Regent House of Takatsukasa, callsign Hydra. They were present at the Miho Bay Skirmish on May 26th, 2000, in a defensive action against a BETA incursion.
- A Takemikazuchi-focused battalion of the Royal Guards, with an illustrious service history dating back to 1998.
- 19th Independent Guard Flight
- One of the personal TSF guard units of the Regent House of Koubuin, the 19th are led by Lieutenant Tsukuyomi Mana; their orders come directly from the Shogun, and the 19th answer to no one but the Shogun. They use the callsign Blood. While the 19th are usually stationed in Yokohama Base, they also participated in Operation 21st as part of the 16th Guard Battalion.
- White Fang Squadron
- A squadron in charge of test and evaluation of experimental technology working in cooperation with the Ministry of Defence. Their commander is Lieutenant Takamura Yui, with Lieutenant Amemiya as her second-in-command. The squadron operates an unknown number of Type-94s and Type-94-1Cs, as well as a Type-00F piloted only by Yui. They use the callsign White Fang. During the Miho Bay Skirmish on May 26th, 2000, at least one flight of the squadron was under the command of the 3rd Guard Battalion, and operated the Type-82F and Type-82A Zuikaku in combat.
- 1st Independent Northern Squadron
- A provisional squadron, callsign Migrant, led by Captain Fujiwara Kanae, a fudai of the Royal Guard. They were sent to Siberia to test the Type-00's cold-weather upgrades and low-temperature resistance post-2001, after the United Nations requested to evaluate the Type-00 for export production feasibility, and were involved in operations against the Evensk Hive.
Hawaii Garrison Edit
- Horn Guard Battalion
- A unit under the command of Ikaruga Takatsugu in The Day After universe. Not much is known concerning its numbers, but the unit is staffed by those in the Guard closest to the Governor General such as Makabe Sukerokurou and Shirogane Takeru. The detachment was seen to have a compliment of Type-00C's and Type-00A's, a Type-00F for Makabe, and a Type-00R for Takatsugu himself. Horn also received the experimental EML-99X Railgun for use during the JFK Hive Operation, with one being operated by Makabe and another by Takatsugu himself.
- In Muv-Luv Alternative Integral Works, regular Japanese forces units are designated with abbreviations beginning with JI (ie. JIMDF) rather than the IJ later seen in official works.
- While Royal Guard units are designated JEG in Muv-Luv Alternative and Muv-Luv Alternative Integral Works, they are seen as JIRG (as well as BTL rather than bat for Battalion) in the Muv-Luv Alternative Total Eclipse anime. It is yet unknown if this is a similar official update or an on screen display inconsistency.
- The rank-based colors of the Royal Guard's Type-82 and Type-00 TSFs are based upon the Twelve Level Cap and Rank System used during the Asuka period of ancient Japan. Any similarities between the two are entirely superficial, however, and the Muv-Luv version seems to use the colors more as an indicator of an individual's heredity status than any actual rank system.
- ↑ MLA LD7 Total Eclipse, pg. 16, "試製98式 武御雷の攻撃", 2nd paragraph.
- ↑ Integral Works, pg. 228, 日本帝国軍.
- ↑ Integral Works, pg. 228, 本土防衛軍・陸軍.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Integral Works, pg. 228, 日本帝国軍組機図.
- ↑ MLA Cross Operation Vol. 3, pg. 120, TSFIA #27: Valkyries Hereafter.
- ↑ Integral Works, pg. 228, 航空宇宙軍.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 Integral Works, pg. 228, 海軍.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Integral Works, pg. 229, 日本帝国斯衛軍
- ↑ MLA TSF Cross Operation Vol. 3, pg. 88, TSFIA #14: Wintering Places.